Learn More About Ice Climbing

Snow and ice are ever-changing environments that make climbing challenging and exciting. Mountaineers and sport climbers enjoy everything from moderate-angle glacier walks to the vertical choreography of waterfall climbing. You can find ice-climbing opportunities at sites ranging from volcanoes in the Pacific Northwest to spectacular frozen waterfalls in the Rockies or the Northeast.

This article discusses the climbing gear and basic techniques used on ice.

Shop REI’s selection of ice-climbing gear.

Getting Started Climbing Ice

Ice climbing typically brings to mind frozen waterfalls. Here, a climber works his or her way up vertical ice with 2 axes, crampons toe-in to the ice.

Climbing alpine ice, though, can also include walking flat-footed with crampons and a single ice axe. A glacier is a larger and more variable beast than most winter-only waterfalls, so you need to use different techniques for changing ice conditions and slope angles.

First, we’ll look at how you use your feet on the ice.

Crampon Techniques

Though it’s possible to climb low-angle ice by using rough features or by chopping steps with an ice axe, at a certain point crampons need to be used for efficiency and safety.

Alpine climbing involves techniques adapted to different terrain. These styles are known as French and German techniques, for the areas in which they originated.

French technique: Also known as flat-footing on ice, this is the preferred technique for low-angle to moderately steep ice (slopes up to about 40°). All crampon points but the very front are kept in contact with the ice for traction. This is the most efficient way to travel over hard snow or ice. On lower-angle ice, climbing is simply a matter of pointing your feet uphill and planting them solidly, including your heels. As the slope angle increases, climbing requires greater ankle flexibility. It is easier to turn your toes outward to walk ducklike in order to keep the feet flat. On steeper slopes, you can progress diagonally up a slope with all points in, but with toes pointing across the slope or even slightly downhill.

Eventually, it becomes necessary to sidestep up the slope. To do this, plant your uphill foot solidly, then cross your lower foot over it and plant solidly. This cross-over upward progression requires care, as it is easy to catch your crampon points on the opposite boot, gaiter or crampon straps. It is important in the French technique to plant all points except the front 2. It is tempting to try to “edge” into a slope, placing only the inner row of points and leaving the outer points in the air. This is easier on your ankles, but your crampons can skate over the ice, allowing you to skate down the slope.

German technique: This is more commonly known as front-pointing, due to the fact that only the front-facing crampon points come in contact with the ice. It’s commonly used on slopes of about 45° and up. The climber faces the slope and kicks his toes in to plant the 2 or 4 front points. It is the most direct way to ascend a steep slope but also the hardest on calf muscles since only the crampon frames support your feet. Unlike French technique, which takes some practice to get the footwork down, German technique is fairly straightforward. Kick, plant the front points, stand. Your body weight must rest on the few sharp points of your crampons and tools, so secure footholds are essential.

Combined technique: One way to make climbing moderately steep ice more comfortable is to mix the German technique (or toe-in to the slope) with flat-footing. This combination technique is known as the “3 o’clock position” or “pied troisieme” and is usually less tiring than straight flat-footing. It involves planting the front points of one foot while keeping the other foot splayed out to the side, sole flat against the slope.

Two common mistakes:

  • Try not to kick repeatedly to set the crampon points. This and kicking too hard are not only tiring, but can weaken the ice you’re standing on. You learn quickly enough about “dinner plates,” or flakes of ice that come crashing out when you’re too rough with tools or crampons.
  • Another tendency is to keep one’s heels up too high, allowing the front points to pop out. Lowering your heels leverages the front points farther into the ice and will help to avoid an unnecessary slip. This is especially important at the end of a steep section or a pitch that ends in a shelf or on flatter terrain.

Using Ice Axes and Tools

Walking on level or low-angle ice does not necessarily require the use of an ice axe. In fact, it’s a good idea to practice your flat-foot technique (with and without crampons) without relying on your ice axe(s) so you learn the “feel” of the ice underfoot.

Of course, you carry and eventually use ice axes or tools on any ice climb. Longer mountaineering axes are often paired with shorter ice tools on alpine routes which involve both snow and ice travel. On steep, technical ice routes, 2 short tools are typically used, one with a hammer and one with an adze. The adze is used for clearing the ice before placing ice screws or for chopping steps or belay ledges. A hammer is used for pounding in ice pitons.

This section covers basics of using axes or ice tools on ice.

Ice Axe Techniques

For low-to-moderate-angle ice (up to about 45°) using French technique:

  • Cane (piolet canne): The cane position is used when you are walking on flat to moderately steep terrain. Hold the axe by the head with the spike (at the end of the shaft) contacting the ice. This axe technique is combined with walking forward or duck-walking as explained in the crampon section above.
  • Cross-body (piolet ramasse): As the slope angle increases, you turn your body sideways to the slope and progress diagonally upward. Here, the cross-body position is a more secure way to hold your axe. Grasp it by the head in your downhill hand and plant the spike across your body into the slope. This is especially useful if you are descending a slope by sidestepping.

For steep ice (45° and higher) using German technique:

  • Low dagger (piolet panne): This position comes into play when you face into the ice or snow and start to front-point. Holding the axe by the head at the adze, push the pick into the slope at about waist or chest level. This is used for short stretches for balance and is better used on hard snow or soft ice. It’s difficult to get much purchase on hard ice with this technique.
  • High dagger (piolet poignard): This is the same as low dagger except that you are placing the axe above your head. Your hand is wrapped around the head of the axe with the pick facing into the slope. High dagger is used when the slope gets too steep for low dagger to be effective.
  • Anchor (piolet ancre): The anchor position gives you even more security. Hold the axe near the bottom of the shaft. Swing the axe overhead to set the pick into the ice. Now, front-pointing, work your feet upward as you move both hands progressively higher on the axe shaft. Eventually, one hand will be holding the axe head, similar to the low dagger position. At this point, remove and place the axe again.
  • Traction (piolet traction): This position is used on very steep to vertical or overhanging ice. When ice is very steep, 2 tools are necessary to maintain balance and contact with the ice as you proceed upward. Holding the tool by its shaft near the base, swing overhead and plant the pick firmly but carefully in the ice. Do the same with the other tool and then work your feet upward. Snug wrist loops are essential when you are using the traction position for maintaining a good grip on the tools. They also let you “hang” by bending your knees and straightening your arms to rest.

Ice Tool Placement

  • When placing your tools, look for depressions in the ice, which are stronger than outward bulges and resist fracturing a bit better. If you are following, look for holes left by your partner and place your tools in them.
  • Just as with crampon placement, a single sure swing is far better than several taps or random chops at the ice. It saves energy and the ice surface. The right amount of force is important, too. Avoid swinging your tools too hard, or you will tire out your arms quickly. The more you can align your shoulder, wrist and axe when you swing, the more direct and secure the placement will be.
  • To remove your tools as you climb past them, lift them out the way they went in. Move the pick back and forth in the same direction it went into the ice, and push up on the adze or hammer to help lift it out. Try not to wiggle the pick side to side as this can break it.

Dry Tooling

Ice routes are frequently mixed with rock. Dry tooling is using your ice tools as protection in cracks or other features on the rock. You can place the pick in a crack or torque the hammer head into a rock feature and then work your way up with your tools as you would if they were in ice. Some hammer-heads are even designed with different angles on each side to fit into various-size cracks like a cam or chock.

Protection and Anchors on Ice

Just as with rock climbing, you need to place protection as you go to protect yourself in case of a slip. Anchors allow you to belay your climbing partner and to rappel back down from a climb. This section covers some of the tools and methods that ice climbers use for protection.

Using Natural Anchors

Natural anchors can be used on an ice climb if you can find them. On waterfall ice, it is common to find sturdy ice columns around which you can put a runner. On mixed climbs you may find natural rock features such as horns to tie a runner around. Some ice climbers make use of cracks between ice and rock by tying off an ice screw with webbing, placing it in the crack and turning it 90° to create a chockstone.

Placing Ice screws

Ice screws must be placed in the ice securely, then clipped with a quickdraw to the rope, all while you are standing on front points and hanging from 1 ice tool. It’s a tricky process for a beginner to master.

  • You first need to clear away any rotten, soft ice or snow, until you reach good, solid ice. Use your pick to create a small hole in which to start the screw.
  • It should go in at about a 10° angle uphill from the direction of expected pull.
  • Choose a spot in the ice near your waist rather than above your head for better leverage while twisting it in. The pick of your free ice tool makes a good screwdriver if you are having a hard time with just your hand. Ice screws with rotating handles make the process much easier.
  • As you work the screw in, clear away any ice that fractures around it. Keep turning until the eye or hanger is flush with the ice surface and pointing down-slope in the direction of pull.
  • On very mushy or rotten ice, it’s necessary to make a horizontal ledge in which to place the screw. Place it vertically in the ice well back from the edge.
  • Keep screw placements around 2 feet apart.
  • Back up sketchy screw placements with second screws linked with runners and ‘biners.

Ice Pitons

Pound-in protection is useful in certain situations where screws would fracture the ice. Hook-style pitons can be placed in cracks, between ice features such as icicles or into old tool placement holes. Use the hammer on your ice tool to pound them in.

Abalakov V-Thread

Named after the Soviet climber who first devised it in the 1930s, the Abalakov V-thread anchor is simple in design, yet very strong. It’s well suited to rappels or top-rope setups, assuming that the ice in which it is made is of good quality.

  • To make the anchor, you need two 22cm ice screws, a length of 7ml perlon or half-inch webbing and a piece of wire to retrieve it.
  • Insert the ice screws at a 10° angle uphill to the slope, and at about a 60° angle sideways. The idea is to make tunnels with the 2 screws that meet in the middle.
  • Leave the first screw partway in place as a marker for placing the second one.
  • Once you have the tunnel, thread the perlon or half-inch webbing using a wire coat hanger with a hook to retrieve it.
  • Move the webbing or cord back and forth to smooth out the tunnel, then tie a knot to create your anchor. If using webbing, use a water knot. For perlon, use a triple fisherman’s knot.

Ice Bollard

The ice bollard is another rappel anchor that is cut out of good-quality ice (i.e., hard ice with no cracks). It consists of a downward-pointing, teardrop-shaped trench in which your climbing rope rests, with an upper lip that prevents the rope from sliding off.

  • To make an ice bollard, use your axe’s pick to make the initial shape, then the adze for scooping out the trench.
  • Cut out a trench at least 6″ deep in the inverted teardrop shape, being careful not to crack the ice.
  • The bollard should be from about 12″ to 18″ wide. (Bollards are also used in snow, but need to be much larger for the snow to hold.)
  • At the top, make an undercut to keep the rope from slipping off. Be very careful not to crack the horn shape that you’ve created for the rope to rest on.

These techniques of ice climbing are just the basics. For more in-depth information and to gain competence, read available books or take a course from a reputable guide or club in your area.

Best Tips for Great Hiking

Planning a spring hiking trip?

Whether you’re finally doing a thru-hike of the Appalachian Trail, looking forward to day hikes on a section of the Pacific Crest Trail, or anything in between, your adventure will be more enjoyable if you follow a few smart tips from The Wilderness Society.

The essentials for a safe adventure

Avoid emergencies by having the tools you need to turn the unexpected into an exciting part of your journey.

  • Carry a map and compass and know how to use them.
  • Bring a pocket knife, and put fire-starting supplies in a water-proof container.
  • Assume the weather will change — bring sun protection, rain gear, and extra layers for sudden cold.
  • Pack extra food and water.
  • And don’t forget to tuck in a whistle and a first aid kit, and bring a headlamp in case your hike takes longer than you’d planned.

Day Hiking

Enjoy the refreshment of the wilderness (and prepare and train for longer hikes) with planned day trips.

  • Always check the weather to avoid afternoon rainstorms.
  • You will have better odds of spotting wildlife by starting before dawn.
  • Avoid the crowds, by exploring the less-well-known trails in designated wilderness or roadless areas.
  • Make sure you pack or have the right shoes for the right occasion.  Outdoor retailers have experienced staff who can help you find the right fit; their advice can mean the difference between a wonderful walk in the wild and a day of pain, aches, and blisters.

Night Hiking

  • Use a headlamp or allow your eyes to adjust naturally.
  • Bring a pair of goggles or glasses to help protect your eyes from the swat of an unseen branch.
  • As the air cools, you’ll be glad for extra layers of non-cotton, quick-drying, wicking clothing.
  • Assume your footing is unstable; walk with a more careful gait — place your foot and test the feel before transferring your weight.  It’s slower than your usual hiking stride, but you’ll avoid a turned ankle — and you’ll hear the night sounds all around you when you take your time.

Hiking with Kids

Hiking with your children is a great way to get them connected to the outdoors.  Just remember to keep the goals easy.

  • Start with short hikes that feature a goal — the waterfall you came to see, the lake where you can wade and play.
  • Plan to take a lot of extra time. If you don’t reach your goal because the kids want to explore under every leaf, then that’s a good hike, too.  With children, it’s about the journey, not the destination.

Hiking with Dogs

  • Make sure your dog is up to date on all vaccinations and ensure those identification tags are firm on the collar.
  • Remember that dogs need to train and condition for longer hikes, too, so don’t forget to bring them along on your short day trips.
  • With a special pack and time to get used to it, your dog can carry his or her own provisions.
  • Do a thorough health check at the end of each day, and include canine-friendly supplies in your first aid kit.
  • Always check the trail rules before you go; you don’t want your dog harassing wildlife.  National Park trails do not allow dogs, while other public lands simply require dogs to be on a leash.

Leave no trace

  • Collect all your trash.  In fact, collect everyone’s trash.  Make it your goal to leave a trail more pristine than you found it.
  • Take gallon zip-top plastic bags for day hikes; more refuse supplies for longer journeys.
  • Stay on designated trails. Protect our natural world by leaving only footprints, taking only pictures.

Hiking Tips At Hot Weather

Sunny days are perfect for lacing up your boots and heading out in search of an alpine lake, a mountain summit or a dramatic slot canyon. But, along with the sun can come intense heat, and if you don’t manage the combination of the two properly, your fun day can turn into a painful and potentially dangerous one.

To learn how to have a good time and stay healthy in hot weather, check out the following:

  • Planning tips: Choose where and when to hike
  • Clothing and gear tips: The right clothes can keep you comfortable
  • Health tips: Protect yourself against sunburn, dehydration, overhydration, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke

Planning Tips for Hot-Weather Hiking

Thinking about when and where you’ll be hiking are important steps in planning a successful hike in hot weather. Keep in mind that it can take 10 days to two weeks to acclimatize to high heat, so be cautious and take it slow on your first few hikes when the weather warms.

When to Hike

Avoid the hottest time of day: The hottest time of day is usually around noon to 3pm. On scorching days, it can be best to avoid this time altogether by getting an early start and ending your hike by early afternoon, or heading out sometime after 3pm. If you can’t avoid hiking during the warmest hours, try to plan your trip so you’ll be in the shade or near a body of water during that time.

Go for a night hike: If you live in, or are visiting, a hot locale, scorching temperatures can be uncomfortable (or even unbearable) during the day and hiking at night can bring relief. Learn more about hiking at night in our article, Night Hiking Basics.

Where to Hike

Stay in the shade: Choosing a hike that keeps you under the shade of trees or within steep canyon walls, rather than exposed directly to the sun, is a good idea.

Hike near water: If there’s not much shade, but you’re near the ocean or a large lake, go for a hike where you can enjoy the cool sea or lake breeze. If you’re hiking next to a river, you can dip your hat, shirt or bandana frequently and drape them on your body to keep you cool as the water evaporates.

Clothing and Gear Tips for Hot-Weather Hiking

Dressing appropriately for a hike can go a long way toward keeping you comfortable.

Choose light colors: Wearing light colors that reflect the sun’s rays rather than absorb them (as dark colors can) helps keep you cool. Look for shirts, shorts and pants in white, tan or khaki.

Wear loose, breathable clothing: Lightweight, loose-fitting clothing that breathes well will help your body regulate temperature. Nylon and polyester are good choices.

Cotton can be OK: You’ve heard it before: cotton kills. Cotton has a bad reputation in the outdoors because it absorbs lots of moisture and dries very slowly, which can create an uncomfortable and dangerous situation on wet and/or cold days. But in hot and dry conditions, the moisture can feel good against your skin, and as it evaporates it will leave you feeling cool.

You must be careful when wearing cotton though. Make sure you’re OK with the feel of wet cotton next to your skin (some people just don’t like it) and that it won’t cause chafing if it rubs against your skin. More importantly, if there’s any chance you’ll be out when the temps dip in the evening, carry a change of clothes or choose to wear synthetics instead of cotton.

Open vents: Some shirts, shorts and pants designed for hiking incorporate vents. Opening these up on a hot day helps improve airflow.

Choose UPF-rated clothing: All clothing blocks the sun’s rays to a certain extent, but clothing that has a UPF rating is guaranteed to provide protection. Common ratings include UPF 15, UPF 30 and UPF 50+. Learn more in our Sun Protection Clothing Basics article.

Cover up: It may seem counter intuitive to put extra clothes on in hot weather, but the added coverage can provide necessary protection from UV rays, especially for people with sensitive skin. A lightweight long-sleeve shirt, sun sleeves and a neck gaiter can provide effective protection.

Put a hat on: A hat provides essential protection from the sun for your face and neck. A baseball cap provides OK shade, but a sun hat with a brim that goes all the way around is even better.

Cool your neck: A bandana, sun-protective neck gaiter or other lightweight cloth can be dunked in water and worn over your head or around your neck to keep the back of your neck cool and covered while the water evaporates. Special polymer-crystal filled neck scarves maintain the moisture for even longer periods of time.

Wear the right socks: Never wear cotton socks (choose wool or synthetic instead) and make sure they fit well. Socks that are too big can have wrinkles that rub and socks that are too small can create pressure points and sock slippage. Learn more in our Blister Prevention and Care article.

Carry a hydration pack: It might seem like a small difference, but having a sip tube always at the ready will make you more likely to hydrate frequently than if you have to reach for a water bottle.

Pack some heat: We’re talkin’ a water pistol here. When the going gets rough with your hiking mates, shoot ’em with a few squirts to cool them down. Alternately, bring along a spray bottle that you can holster to your belt and pull out for some fine misting when you need it.

To learn more about clothing for overnight adventures, read our Backpacking Clothes: How to Choose article.

Health Concerns for Hot-Weather Hiking

Sunburn, dehydration, heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke are some of the most common health concerns related to hot-weather hiking.

Sunburn

Sun-protection clothing is one good line of defense against the sun, but don’t forget to put sunscreen on exposed skin to help prevent sunburns. Sunscreen is absolutely essential on hikes in the sun. Always read the directions on your bottle of sunscreen, but here are the basics:

  • For hikes lasting longer than 2 hours, choose sunscreen that is SPF 30 or higher.
  • Apply sunscreen liberally 15 minutes before sun exposure
  • Reapply after 40 or 80 minutes of swimming or sweating, immediately after towel drying or at least every 2 hours.

Learn more in our articles Sunscreen: How to Choose and Sunscreen: When and How to Use.

Dehydration

It’s important to drink adequate water when you’re hiking in hot weather to prevent dehydration. Dehydration can leave you feeling crummy and possibly contribute to other heat-related illnesses, such as cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

How much you need to drink while hiking depends on a number of factors, such as temperature and humidity, your intensity level, your age, your body type and sweat rate, as well as the duration of your hike. A good general recommendation is about a half liter of water per hour of moderate activity in moderate temperatures. From there, you may need to increase how much you drink as the temperature and intensity of the activity rise. For example, strenuous hiking in high heat may require that you drink one liter of water or more per hour. As you gain experience, you’ll be able to fine-tune how much you drink.

If you’re hiking with your dog, remember they need water, too. In a dry location, plan to carry enough water for your pet and bring along a small, packable bowl.

Learn more about hydration in our Hydration Basics article.

Overhydration

The flip side to dehydration is overhydration, or hyponatremia. This is a fairly rare condition that mainly affects endurance athletes such as marathon runners, ultrarunners and triathletes, but it’s something that hikers should be aware of.

In hyponatremia, sodium levels in the blood become so diluted that cell function becomes impaired. In very extreme cases, hyponatremia may cause coma and even death.

The symptoms of hyponatremia are similar to dehydration: fatigue, headache and nausea, causing some athletes to mistakenly drink more water and exacerbate the issue.

Preventing overhydration: The key to preventing overhydration is to monitor how much you drink.

  • Don’t overdrink—Stick to drinking a few gulps of water about every 15–20 minutes and try not to drink more than you sweat. Weight gain during exercise is a telltale sign that you’re drinking too much.
  • Add salt—Keep your salt levels balanced by occasionally drinking a sports drink with electrolytes instead of plain water and/or eating a salty snack, such as pretzels. You can also take salt tablets.

Heat Cramps

Heat cramps are painful muscle contractions that can happen suddenly during exercise in hot weather. It can be helpful to view heat cramps as a warning that you’re pushing your limits and that you need to slow down. It’s not known exactly what causes heat cramps, but to help avoid them, make sure you’re properly hydrated. If you get heat cramps, do some gentle stretching to try to alleviate the pain.

Heat Exhaustion

Heat exhaustion is your body’s inability to cope with the stress of heat. It can occur after lengthy exposure to high temperatures and is often accompanied by dehydration.

Symptoms of heat exhaustion:

  • Heavy sweating
  • Rapid pulse
  • Faintness
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Headache

Treatment for heat exhaustion:

It’s important to treat heat exhaustion immediately if you or another hiker is showing symptoms.

  • Get out of the heat: Look for a shady spot and lay down and rest. Remove any excess clothing. If there aren’t any trees to provide shade but you have a tarp, use it to block the sun.
  • Rehydrate: Drink plenty of water and if you have electrolytes or salt tablets, use some of those.
  • Cool off: It can feel good to splash cool water on your face and head. If you’re hiking near a lake or stream, dunk your head or dip a bandana or hat in the water and put it on your head.

How to prevent heat exhaustion:

  • Take time to acclimate: You need to ease into hiking in hot weather. It can take 10 days to two weeks to acclimatize, so be cautious and take it slow on your first few hikes of the season.
  • Stay hydrated: Make sure you’re drinking enough fluids. A half-liter per hour is a good starting point, but you may need more depending on the intensity of the hike.
  • Wear appropriate clothing: Choose lightweight, loose-fitting clothing that allows your body to regulate temperature and a sun hat that will shade your face and neck.
  • Rest in the shade: If you need to take a break, take the time to find a shady spot rather than toughing it out under the hot sun.
  • Know what you’re capable of: Be honest about your level of fitness and choose hikes that complement that.

Heat Stroke

Heat stroke occurs when your body literally overheats. It is a serious medical condition that can strike fast and requires immediate medical attention. If you see a hiking partner displaying symptoms of heat exhaustion combined with a change in mental status, he or she may have heat stroke. Pay particular attention to these signs:

  • Throbbing headache
  • Dizziness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Confusion
  • Disorientation
  • Anxiety
  • Body temperature of 104-degrees-Fahrenheit or higher (if you have a way of measuring body temperature)

Treatment for heat stroke:

  • Cool down: It’s necessary to rapidly cool a person with heat stroke. Lay the hiker down in the shade, remove extra clothing and use cool water and fanning to lower their temperature. If you’re near a lake or stream, you can attempt to lay the hiker down in the water, taking care to keep their airway clear. Also, be aware that rapid cooling can cause hypothermia.
  • Hydrate: If the hiker is alert enough to hold a water bottle, get them to drink water.
  • Evacuate: Heat stroke can cause internal organ damage, so get the hiker out as soon as possible and head straight to the hospital for further evaluation.

How to prevent heat stroke: Follow the same tips for preventing heat exhaustion.

If you want to be better prepared to respond to medical emergencies in the outdoors, consider taking a wilderness medicine course.

The 10 Most Unanswered Questions about Firearms

What You Need to Know Before Purchasing a Rifle

This article is meant to help you get an idea of the purchase you will make when looking to but your first air rifle. When buying ones first air rifle, it is the same as buying a pair of shoes because you get many options but only one will fit you well. there are some important factors to consider before making any rifle purchase so as to avoid regrets in future.

The four main types of sir rifles based on propulsion method and how the pellets are propelled out of the barrel include the pneumatic ( PCP), gas ram and Co2.

The most common type used is the spring piston and a sit names suggests it uses the piston to push a pellet down the range. There is no worry when it comes to things like pumping and cartridges and with enough practice one will be able to enjoy the benefits of its accuracy, consistency and power.

When using a pneumatic rifle which is also known as a pump rifle, the pellet is usually propelled out but the use of compressed air. Although pump up rifles are cheaper than the Co2 varieties, they need to be charged or primed for every shot.

Although PCPs operate in the same manner as pump rifles, they do not need to be recharged a soften because they have a steady supply of highly pressurised air. The main disadvantage of the PCP rifle is cost because apart from buying the gun itself, one is forced to purchase a hand pump or a scuba tank.

The similarity between a gas ram gun and a spring piston is that they are both cocked using a lever their only difference is how the pellets a e propelled down the barrel. main advantage of gas ram rifles iS their smooth shot and long shell life.

although expensive to purchase. Co2 riles are easier to use as they are powered by CO2 cartridges.

You will also need to consider the function of the rifle example to hunt , target shooting etc. Another important consideration is what caliber to use according to the purpose of your rifle.

Budget is another issue to consider as you want to get the best deal at an affordable price. There are good affordable rifles that will last long. To make this process easy for you, just narrow down to the usage, type and budget and you will be able to get your first gun with no regrets.

You can upgrade your rifle after you have used it for long according to the power, consistency etc. that you want.

The Beginners Guide To Activities (Getting Started 101)

Getting Some Time in the Beach

There are a lot of places that we could go to as we would surely enjoy visiting new places and having new experiences, it can be great if we could visit wonderful beaches as it would surely be a wonderful experience. We should visit the beaches on different parts of the world that would have wonderful views so that we would be able to enjoy what our planet is able to offer. We are able to enjoy ourselves in beaches as it would have a very relaxing vibe and it would also be able to cool us off from the heat when we would go swimming. People who would love to do beach activities like water sports would surely love Shoal Bay as it is a place that would have clear blue waters and would have a great quality in their sand that can be a great place to be in. The Shoal Bay is also a place where you could use an inflatable SUP or a paddle board as it would be great to use it in its calm waters as you would not have any kind of problems in maintaining your balance. There is also a beach in California that is called the Glass Beach as it was a dump site a long time ago that have transformed into a wonderful beach. The glass from the garbage long ago was turned into crystals by the sea and it has transformed into crystals that have been able to make the beach look much better.

Fakistra in Greece is also a very popular place as it would be able to give you an environment where you can relax as it is covered with trees and the temperature would be not that hot. There are a lot of wonderful beaches that you can find in Thailand and it would be great if you could do some research so that you would be able to know which ones would be able to offer you a great time. There are beaches where you would be able to go snorkeling and even scuba diving as there are a lot of wonderful views in its sea bed. It is important that we should all know that we should preserve the condition that our beaches would have so that they would still be able to have their best condition even if a lot of time would pass. Beaches are great places for us to relax and have a lot of fun that is why it would be great to visit them.

More ideas: browse around here

A Quick History of Goggles

The Dependable Swimming Goggles

During leisure period, some people prefer to spend their quality time swimming where they not only gain the essential swimming skills but also improve their personal health since one tends to attain maximum relaxation. In the essence of helping swimmers to acquire the right swimming skills, a large number of swimming goggle designers have combined their extensive knowledge with enough experience in provision of quality products that will enable one to swim perfectly. Thus, it is advisable for interested swimmers to read through the latest reviews where they can easily spot the best swimming goggles to ensure that they can easily access quality designs that will in the end help to boost their swimming skills.

The beauty about the highly available swimming goggles is the fact that they are offered in a wide range of selection types and sizes for the users to obtain their interested designs that can easily fit every head while mirrored and clear lens are as well aviled. Highly reliable swimming goggles enable swimmers to enjoy their quality time at the pool due to the installed tinted lens that assure an improved protective measure against the harmful ultra-violet rays and as well enhance visibility during sunny and brighter days. It is undoubtedly true that the encouraging swimming goggles are usually installed with twin straps to ensure that the swimmer is not worried about the security of the goggles since they are absolutely held in place to avoid incidences that the goggles may slip away.

Highly reputable swimming goggles are developed with quality lenses that enhance better visibility in the course of swimming while the availed designs assured better resistance to cracks, scuffs and scratches to ensure that the goggles serve the user for a very long period. It is undoubtedly true that the highly appealing swimming goggles are usually featured with quality visibility designs for the swimmers enjoy their time while the accessible nose plugs are built-in for the swimmers to breath well enough Moreover, the beneficial swimming goggles are often manufactured by highly trained technicians with in-depth knowledge and many years of experience in provision of commendable swimming goggles that will definitely satisfy the swimmers.

The encouraging thing about the highly promising swimming goggles is the fact that the designers ensure that they acquire full licensing with the state to assure legal operation while the certification obtained with reputable regulatory bodies assure quality products that are fully tested and examined. Moreover, highly pleasing swimming goggles can be accessed through high-tech websites where custom icons are revealed for swimmers to view the availed wide range of swimming goggles, receive regular updates and make orders with ease. In a nutshell, highly appealing swimming goggles are offered at a relatively lower price along with enjoyable discounts for many willing swimmers to obtain with less hassle to an extent of creating mutual relationship with the clients.

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Knowing The Different Sports Activities That The Whole Family Can Enjoy

When you are looking for different activities that the whole family can enjoy, then the task will not be that hard. You can actually stay active and healthy all at the same time. It doesn’t mean that you are not in healthy shape if you are not playing sports professionally. But it is when you will engage in different physical activities that you can also get healthy compared to juts sitting down on your sofa. That is why it is better that you will be able to engage the whole family in a sport that they can participate. As a whole family, you can also have a quality time together and bond together. The moment that your family is a member of a family oriented sports and health club, then there are sports like basketball and volleyball that they can join in. While your kids are playing, the members of the family can watch and cheer. There are still a number of different sports that the whole family can engage in if you are not a member of any of the sports clubs.

It is important that when you will choose a sport, you have to choose the ones that the kids will be able to participate in. One of the sports that you can engage in is marathons and walks for charity. It is here that you will have a chance to get a placing but it is not really the point and it will also depend on the age of your children. Enjoying the whole experience as a family is the main goal of this one. It is kindness and compassion that your kids will learn the moment that you will be playing for charity.

Having fun in the wilderness is also another thing that the whole family can enjoy. It is paddle boarding that is considered as one of the most common sports that you can enjoy outdoors. There are fewer gears that you will need in this sport and everyone seems to enjoy it a lot. What you only need is a paddleboard, a paddle and a life jacket. You can also take certification classes for the whole family. It is through these certification classes that the whole family will really have a good time.

Another great sport that the whole family can also enjoy is tennis. It is in tennis that you will learn a lot of things. Teamwork, physical fitness and mental toughness can all be learned in tennis. Tennis is a sport that can be joined by people of any age and gender. It is also this sports that will not be dependent on the weather as there are also tennis courts that are indoors.

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Gun Range Accepted Mannerisms

Headed to the gun range to develop your marksmanship? There are a few basic tenets you should stick to from the moment you enter a “hot” range. Read along below and learn you’ll be viewed as being a pro, and how one should execute herself within this area – whether it is your first or fiftieth visit. Etiquette for the range’s conventional guidelines are as follows:

Pay attention to where you are striving your weapon’s barrel. Your muzzle must always be pointed toward the bottom if you don’t are prepared to eliminate your weapon. This is among the most significant guidelines because no one wants to genuinely believe that you’re currently aiming your weapon at their encounter deliberately to adhere to in a weapon array.

Quickly conform when the range chief requires one to make a move. The two terms that will have you ever run to consideration the fastest are “Cease-Fire!” Quickly stop discharging your rifle once you notice that phrase.

If you need to improve your target, make sure to wait until all of those other shooters have set their firearms down as well as the range is peaceful. Substitute it rapidly and go to the goal, after which go back to your street that is specified. Don’t choose your weapon up again before selection is proclaimed hot again.

Have you been getting numerous guns towards the range? In that case, try and preserve the capsules independent. This will lessen the likelihood of you inadvertently filling one into the incorrect marker. Even although you have brought a weapon that’s rapid fire abilities, examine the number security guidelines before you take your tool in this way. This could be that fast firing discourages, and you’ll then need to take in a way that is slower. If you should be unsure whether quick firing is condoned by the number, it never affects to request the individual in control. If you fail to instantly take gradually, err privately of warning and request him.

When you are done along with your firing period, do what any good person would do: clean-up another detritus and your brass in the area. Without impeding someone else bunch your tools away, and check out the foyer. Almost all shooters consider treatment that is excellent to check out all weapon array etiquette’s guidelines. Be sure you are included in this, and regard will be demanded by you from your other shooters.

Follow the guidelines mentioned above and become an expert that is firing. If you’re not qualified about how to handle a firearm, it’s often recommended to stay the organization of an individual who does to make sure that your security is guaranteed.

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What To Know Before Buying Inflatable Kayaks?

The conventional hard shell kayaks were quite expensive and more so, they add concerns of portability and storage as well. This is a completely different thing when talking about modern day kayaks especially the inflatable models as they’re designed in a way to minimize space constraints. Nevertheless, buying one doesn’t necessarily put a dent on your budget.

You certainly know the true importance of having the right gear, if you’re a type of person who is adventurous and seeking thrill. It isn’t just guaranteeing that you will have exciting and wonderful experience but it keeps you safe all the time too. It may include to compare different models and makes when searching for inflatable kayak for sale. Some of these are listed in this article.

When it comes to the style of inflatable kayak, the condition you’ll be using it more often as well as your level of comfort will determine the most ideal for you. There are a number of styles that are available for kayaks such as sit on top, sit in and self bailing.

Sit on top – here, the seat is raise a little bit, which are created primarily for recreational purposes. Whitewater, lakes as well as rivers that don’t have much turbulence in the water is where it suits best. Beginners may also buy sit on top kayaks as it is very easy to control and maneuver plus the fact that there is less learning curve.

Sit in – seating area is actually a hollow cockpit that’s enclosed on all sides so the moment you sit in, you’ll feel a snug fit. These are designed mainly for conditions that see lots of currents and waves and winds and for competitive performances too.

Self bailing – this inflatable boat has a number of tiny holes that’s intentionally included in the design to allow water that accidentally entered the kayak to drain out. This is great for whitewater situations but not calm waters as this can fill up your kayak.

It’ll largely depend on the trips you’re going to take when talking about buying a solo or tandem kayak. To give you an example, single seater is ideal if you’re making solo trips but if you’re traveling in groups, then a tandem will certainly get the job done. As a matter of fact, there’s a convertible that is doubling up for tandem and solo but this comes for a higher price.

Needless to say, the best inflatable kayak is going to cost you more compared to basic and standard models as it has more features that you’ll need plus the fact that they are made from quality materials and very durable.

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Fun Seaside Sports to Try this Summer

People as we are, looking forward to have a great experience at the beach is something that we most likely are going to expect this summer but the thing is that there are quite a few things that most of us know. Even though people have some of the best ideas on how to enjoy their summer at the beach, not everyone is aware about the real activities that really is capable of giving you a chance to experience beaching at a whole new level. If you have been planning on beach escapade, then the very things that we have below should further your expected experience and assure a great getaway.

One of the things that we will be talking about is a type of activity that has just become so popular yet it right away hit the world by surprise, paddle boarding. The name actually is derived from two words, surfing and paddling, hence the name paddle boarding. What is great about this type of activity is that you can choose to learn it yourself or take lessons about it. If you are going to look into such type of activity for your summer escapade, then consider choosing beginner boards to be able to start it out right. This type of activity focuses on making sure that you will significantly improve your overall balance, and also promote your time with the family.

Going on with our list, scuba diving will surely be one of the things that you should opt to consider looking into as well. Technically speaking, this is not something that you could just decide to learn yourself because this will require adequate lessons taught by licensed professional scuba divers. One thing that is great about this is that if you are licensed, this will allow you to get to dive anywhere in the world.

If you are looking forward to relax though, then chances are that you will find beach yoga an activity that you will definitely enjoy. There are quite a number of beach resorts that you could find today that hold yoga classes, accompanied by professional instructors. If your beach experience is all about relaxation and improving life balance, then this is going to be the right one.

Going on, water zorbing has been among the things that people should look into when traveling to have a beach experience. Basically speaking, this one involves being placed inside a large inflatable ball that allows you to stay afloat and even walk. The entire concept of which is taken from the land-based zorbing.

While these are just quite a few, finding one will surely fill your adrenaline and experience.

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Why Inflatable Stand-Up Paddle Boards are Beneficial

If you are like many people today, you might be looking forward with great expectation to summer, already envisioning the warm sunlight and the amazing and exhilarating water sports that you love. One might already be planning a trip, then, to a beautiful part of the world which is well-known for fun water sports, knowing that there, many experiences can be enjoyed. You will be happy to know, then, that there are a lot of wonderful ways through which you can improve your summer vacation, making it truly memorable – one of these ways is through purchasing and using an inflatable stand-up paddle board. When people purchase inflatable stand-up paddle boards, then, they will be happy to know that through these paddle boards, they can benefit so many wonderful advantages, making their summers truly enjoyable.

The first thing that people will be able to enjoy through an inflatable stand-up paddle board is the benefit of being able to reap a great deal of convenience. One might know that an inflatable paddle board can be deflated so that it becomes very compact and lightweight, which makes one have the chance of carrying it around in his or her bag without difficulty. One will also be happy to know that an inflatable paddle board is very easy to store – one who does not have enough room for a big board will be able to keep an inflatable one without any trouble.

Another thing that people can enjoy through inflatable paddle boards is the benefit of having a paddle board which is very rigid. Some of the best inflatable paddle boards can be inflated so that they are so rigid, they are not unlike the regular paddle boards which are used. The plus side of an inflatable paddle board, however, is that its surface is more forgiving than the surface of a regular paddle board, meaning that if ever one were to fall and hit himself or herself on the board, it would be less painful than falling on a regular board.

One who purchases an inflatable stand-up paddle board from a good manufacturer will also be able to benefit because this paddle board is sure to last for a long time, being strong and durable. Buying something which is durable is certainly something of great benefit to you, as through it, you can be sure that a lot of money can be saved in the long run.

One who purchases an inflatable stand-up paddle board, then, will certainly be able to enjoy benefits and advantages which are truly wonderful and satisfying, both today and also in the long run.

Why not learn more about Goggles?

Why is it Not Safe to Wear Contact Lenses in Water.

People that wear contact lenses praise them for being very convenient and unobtrusive. By simply popping the contact lenses in the eyes, one can enjoy their day with all the benefits, ease and convenience they need.

A person with vision issues can experience all the difference in wearing contact lenses but they should never wear them in one place. It is important to protect your eyes while in the water but never wear your contact lenses while swimming.

People who enjoy swimming and wear contact lenses do not have to stop enjoying their favourite sport because of this. There are some specially designed goggles that are available for visually impaired people to be worn while swimming instead of contacts lenses.

People who wear contact lenses and are often tempted to get into the water with them will find this article very helpful. we shall delve deeper in to the effect of water on contact lenses.
Water and Contacts lenses.

One aspect that many people are not aware of is that contact lenses should not be put in water. This includes all kinds of water whether in the pool , ocean or when showering. Some of the detrimental effects of water on contact lenses shall be discussed below.

Water regardless of where it is has never been proven to be completely germ free and it is also a very good environment for bacteria and gems. However although we are constantly exposed to these germs an microbes, our bodies are used to dealing with them

Very serious eye infection can be caused by one of the most dangerous germs in water called Acanthamoeba This nasty infection need to be treated so as to avoid blindness, permanent eye damage and also cornea inflammation.

Although contact lenses help one to see better, when worn in water, they act as a magnet and absorb whatever is around including microbes. The acnathamoeba has a good environment to spread its infection as the water is pushed in the space between the eye and the contact lenses.

The solution therefore is to wear these specially designed goggles while swimming. Their merits are that they vary in shape, size and style and one can adjust them for comfort, The advanced technology enables you to see clearly in water as you can adjust the lens dioptre as needed. Your eyes are also protected from the harsh elements and germs in water by the swim goggles.

By purchasing a pair of goggles to use when swimming, one can swim safely and happily with a peace of mind.

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Some Sports That Dads May Use to Bond With Their Children

Our lives are becoming rather busy, and it is tough to find time with your kids. You will need to be intentional about creating time to invest with them and what better way than to play sports together. There are different kinds of sports you might check out over vacations or weekends to make sure you spend time together as you take pleasure in the outdoors. Research shows that time spent playing sports or other leisure activities can improve your emotional bonds as a family.

If you believe that you aren’t spending much time together with your family, why not try to include these activities into your day-to-day or weekend routines?

One sport you can attempt to play along with your kids is golf. You could have some family fun by encouraging your kids to join you for golf. Do not be surprised if you are met with horrified stares from your children. You can get your kids to at least try to play the sport twice. This sport is involving and requires an entire day. It’s possible for you to stand side by side together at the tee and show them how they can perfect their swing. You can also try out riding the golf carts and introduce some mischief as you enjoy your time at the golf course. You can go on the internet and check out some golf cart reviews to learn what types would be the quickest and steadiest.

You may try playing with a game of football together. Your household could form a five a side team and you also might get your friend’s family to form another team. Being there on the field trying to win the match together can be so much fun. You could provide an incentive for the winning team like buying pizza after the game.

In the event you reside near a park, you can decide to cycle with your children in the mornings. Teaching kids to cycle is mostly the job of fathers. You are going to feel proud when you teach them how to cycle and watch them become better at it. You may even choose extended trips to teach your kids persistence. This gives an opportunity to have some quality time with your loved ones.

Another thing to try is to take fishing trips or kayaking. As you make memories that will last a lifetime, you could reap the benefits of this. If you enjoy fishing, you could teach your kids how to do it and the best places to go. Should you be not a fan of fishing, you can enjoy the trip on the kayak as you enjoy the water and the new surroundings. You may learn new things about one another.

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